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Thursday, July 4, 2019

The Female Reproductive System

   The Female Reproductive System




The Female Reproductive System




Female Genital Organs:

                             (Mainly internal organs)


Like men, which have a specific male reproductive system, women have a pair of specialized sex glands: the ovaries. Responsible for the production of oocytes (sex hormone cells) and steroid hormones (estrogens and progesterone), the ovaries are buried deep within the abdomen, but communicate with the outside through a system of channels and cavities including the Fallopian horns, uterus and vagina. A woman's external genitalia, called the vulva, includes the labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris.  Although not directly involved in reproduction, the breasts are also considered organs of the reproductive system

Function of the female reproductive system:

• Produces eggs (ovules)
• Secretes sex hormones
• Receive male sperm during
• Aid to Protect and nourish the fertilized egg (sexual reproduction) to become a fetus
• Transports the fetus through the birth canal
• Provides food for the baby through milk secreted by the mammary glands in the breast


Anatomy of The Female Reproductive System



The Female Reproductive System

 External Reproductive Organs:



The vulva:


The external female genitalia is called the vulva, a group of structures in the external opening of the vagina. It consists of the labia majora and labia minora (while these names translate to "big" and "small" lips, often the "minor" may protrude from the "main"), mons pubis, clitoris, opening of the urethra (meat), vaginal vestibule, vestibular bulbs, vestibular glands

Functions: sensory excitation glands for lubrication


Mammary glands (breasts):


The mammary glands are the organs that produce milk for the sustenance of a child. Nutrient-rich baby food, each breast consists of several lobes of secretory cells embedded in the connective tissue, the ducts of the individual glands join to form a single duct: the duct exits through the nipple

The development of the mammary glands is controlled by hormones. The mammary glands exist in both sexes, but are rudimentary until puberty when, in response to ovarian hormones, they begin to develop in women. Estrogen promotes formation, while testosterone inhibits it


Internal organs:



The ovaries:


The ovary contains several thousand small structures called primary follicles. Each primary follicle is made up of a germ cell surrounded by a layer of cells. This germ cell has the potential to mature into an egg if the follicle completes development (known as the Graafian follicle). However, most primary follicles never develop. Rather, they die, are absorbed by the ovary, and replaced by newly formed primary follicles

The ovaries perform two main functions:


  • Oogenesis: Immature oocytes in the ovary mature into eggs ready for fertilization
  • Hormonal secretions: the follicular cells of the ovary mainly secrete estrogens and progesterone



Oviducts (fallopian tubes):


The oviduct begins as a funnel-shaped tube that wraps around the ovary. This funnel-shaped portion of the oviduct is called an infundibulum. When ovulation occurs, the egg is collected from the infundibulum and funneled into the oviduct (also called the fallopian tube), where fertilization occurs in the presence of vital sperm. The infundibulum has a frayed edge, the fimbria, which helps collect the egg from the ovary


The uterus:


The uterus is shaped like an inverted pear, with a thick lining and muscular walls. Located near the floor of the pelvic cavity, it is hollow to allow a blastocyst, or fertilized egg, to implant and grow. It also allows the lining of the uterus to build up until a fertilized egg is implanted or removed during menstruation. Divided into ant, body and cervix, the uterus protrudes into the vagina, as previously detailed in the anatomical section. The uterus has three histological layers:

(1) the internal mucous layer, the endometrium (the innermost layer of the uterine wall. It contains glands that secrete fluids that moisten the uterine lining)

(2) the middle muscular layer, myometrium (Muscle smooth on the wall of the uterus: it contracts to help expel the baby)

(3) the outer layer, perimeters

The uterus includes some of the strongest muscles in the female body. These muscles can expand and contract to accommodate a growing fetus, and therefore help expel the baby during delivery. These muscles also contract rhythmically during an orgasm in a wave similar to action. This is believed to help push or guide sperm in the uterus into the fallopian tubes, where fertilization is possible

Some problems with the uterus include uterine fibroids, pelvic pain (including endometriosis, adenomyosis), pelvic relaxation (or prolapse), heavy or abnormal menstrual bleeding, and cancer



The embryo:


The fertilized embryo moves from the oviduct to the uterine horn, where development of the fetal and maternal membrane begins. This newly developed fetus grows within a layer of membranes called the placenta. There is no direct blood connection between the fetus and the mother, but a complex system that allows certain molecules to pass selectively from the maternal side of the placenta to the fetal side and vice versa



The cervix:


The cervix (from the Latin "neck") is the lower part, the cervix is ​​a thick-walled structure approximately 10-11 cm long and 2.5 to 5 cm in diameter located between the uterine body and the vagina, a The narrow portion of the uterus is attached to the upper end of the vagina. The point where they meet forms a curve of almost 90 degrees. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the superior anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half of its length is visible with the proper medical equipment; the rest is above the vagina beyond view. Occasionally called "cervix" or "cervix"

The cervix produces a mucus discharge that is generally thick, however this discharge has been fluidized at the time of estrus to facilitate movement of sperm into the uterus. This fluid can be seen as part of the discharge from the vulva to oestrus. During pregnancy, the thick discharge of mucus is called the cervical cap, which protects the uterus from infections that enter the vagina. The cervical plug is expelled and the cervical opening begins to dilate in the days before birth. So, the main function of the cervix is ​​to limit access to the uterus. Therefore, the cervix and its secretions form a physical barrier and protect the uterus from microorganisms (bacteria, viruses) and other foreign materials

During menstruation, the cervix is ​​slightly stretched to allow loss of the endometrium. This stretch is believed to be part of the cramping pain that many women experience. The proof of this is given by the fact that some female cramps decrease or disappear after their first vaginal delivery because the cervical opening has widened

During labor, contractions of the uterus dilate the cervix up to 10 cm in diameter to allow the baby to pass. During orgasm, the cervix moves and the external operating system dilates



The vagina: (birth canal)


The vagina, which is about 18 cm long and is located between the cervix and the vulva, acts as a receptacle for the penis during service. The vagina is a hollow, muscular tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the cervix. It is located between the urinary bladder and the rectum, receives the penis during sexual intercourse and is the natural way for the elimination of uterine secretions, the fetus and the annexes during childbirth, the lubricating fluid secretes mucosa during sexual excitement, all lower end, folds of the mucous membrane inwards and forms a membrane (the hymen), which is broken by intense activity, insertion of tampons at the beginning of the menstrual cycle or the first sexual intercourse

The vagina is made up of three layers, an internal mucous layer, an average muscular layer, and an external fibrous layer. The inner layer is made up of vaginal wrinkles that stretch and allow penetration. These also help with stimulation of the penis. Microscopically, the vaginal wrinkle has glands that secrete acidic mucus (pH of about 4.0) that keeps bacterial growth low. The outer muscle layer is particularly important with delivery of a fetus and a placenta




Physiology of The Female Reproductive System:


Female Reproductive Hormones:


The female reproductive system is regulated by a signaling pathway for the female reproductive hormones described in the previous slides. There are three key points in the female body that act as hormonal messaging centers. They are the hypothalamus in the brain (it secretes a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)), the anterior pituitary gland, and the ovaries. This hormone (GnRH) regulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from specialized cells in the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones are released in short bursts. LH and FSH promote ovulation and stimulate the secretion of the sex hormone estradiol, (an estrogen) and progesterone from the ovaries. These hormones circulate in the bloodstream and stimulate the target organs of the reproductive system.


Estrogen functions:


  • Development and maturation of the reproductive tract
  • Development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics (change in fat distribution, enlargement of the mammary glands, inhibit the growth of the extremities)
  • Behavioral changes (~ sexual desire, courtship behavior)

Progesterone functions:


  • Has the greatest effect on tissues prepared with estrogens
  • Changes that favor pregnancy and lactation (endometrial thickening, development of the mammary glands)



Oogenesis:




The Female Reproductive System



Oogenesis is the term used to describe the creation of the egg or egg. The ovum is the female cell that will be fertilized by sperm to create an embryo that can develop into a fetus. The process of oogenesis begins when a woman is still only an embryo. The creation of female ovules occurs before or shortly after the birth of a female. At birth, a female will have 1,000,000 primary eggs, but only 200,000 will remain from puberty. No other primary eggs are created. During a woman's reproductive life, only 450 eggs complete oogenesis

At birth, the baby already has 1 to 2 million oocytes in its ovaries, that is to say cells immature sex These cells are contained in small pockets, the primordial follicles. Every month after puberty, sex hormones mature from 20 to 25 follicles, turning them into primary follicles. Many of them degenerate, with the exception of one, which continues its maturation and becomes a secondary follicle. This follicle grows rapidly: in a few days, its wall thickens and fluid accumulates around the oocyte it contains. Therefore, it is known as the De Graaf follicle. When the follicle wall breaks, the oocyte is expelled from the ovary and captured by the strips of the fallopian tubes: it is ovulation. From this stage, the oocyte is designated with the name of the egg



The Female Reproductive Cycle:




The Female Reproductive System




Towards the end of puberty, girls begin releasing eggs as part of a monthly period called the female reproductive cycle or menstrual cycle (menstrual called "monthly"). Approximately every 28 days, during ovulation, an ovary sends a small egg to one of the fallopian tubes. Unless the sperm fertilizes the egg while it is in the fallopian tube within 2-3 days of ovulation, the egg dries out and leaves the body about two weeks later through the vagina. This process is called menstruation. Blood and tissues from the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) combine to form menstrual flow, which generally lasts four to seven days. Menstruation occurs in monthly cycles during a woman's reproductive life. However, menstruation does not occur while a woman is pregnant, in most women. Menstruation begins during puberty and ends permanently at menopause.

This cycle involves the uterine endometrium and ovarian follicles. We will divide these two areas into ovarian and endometrial cycles, however, both occur in unison and in parallel and are highly coordinated through mutual interaction. The uterus accumulates under the influence of increasing levels of estrogens (labeled estradiol in the image). The follicles develop and within a few days mature into an egg or an egg. During the ovulation phase, the ovary releases this egg. After ovulation, the uterine lining enters a secretory phase, or ovarian cycle, in preparation for implantation, under the influence of progesterone. Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum (the follicle after ovulation) and enriches the uterus with a thick layer of blood vessels and capillaries so that it can support the growth of the fetus


  • If fertilization and implantation occurs, the embryo produces human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which maintains the corpus luteum and continues to produce progesterone until the placenta can produce progesterone. Therefore, progesterone is "progestational" and maintains the uterine lining throughout pregnancy
  • If fertilization and implantation do not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates into an albican body, and progesterone levels decrease. This drop in progesterone levels causes the endometrial lining to rupture and suspend through the vagina. This is called menstruation


The reproductive cycle can be divided into:


(1) Ovarian cycle:

An egg matures in the ovary and is released approximately 14 days after the last menstruation. The ovarian cycle has two phases, the follicular phase and the luteal phase, which are separate from ovulation. In the follicular phase, approximately 10-25 follicles are taken from the initial preantral or ear follicles to develop further. The dominant follicle is selected to develop full maturity seven days later. This is the precursor to ovulation: the follicles themselves secrete FSH and estrogens, and these two hormones stimulate follicular growth and development

Ovulation marks the beginning of the luteal phase. This started from the Graffian follicle wall until it ruptured and caused a flow of antral fluid that will carry the oocyte to the surface of the ovary. Which secretes estrogens and progesterone. All of this is triggered by a sharp change in plasma LH levels. After ovulation, the released oocyte enters the uterine tube, where it will be fertilized or discarded

Ovulation signs: The female body produces external signs that can be easily recognized at the time of ovulation. The two main signs are thinning of the cervical mucus and a slight change in body temperature

(2) Uterine cycle: 

The lining of the uterus accumulates to prepare a fertilized egg. If fertilization does not occur, the lining breaks down and menstruation occurs. The uterine cycle works in sync with the ovarian cycle and is divided into three phases. The first phase in the menstrual phase. It is called the menstrual phase because it corresponds to the detachment of the uterine lining or more commonly called menstruation. The last stage is the secretory stage. It is here that the endometrium is transformed to make it the best environment for implantation and subsequent housing and nutrition for the developing embryo




Diseases and disorders of the Female Reproductive System

Women commonly have to deal with many different diseases and disorders that affect the reproductive system

• Vulvovaginitis: It is an inflammation of the vulva and vagina. It can be caused by irritants like laundry soap, bubble bath, or poor hygiene, like back-to-front cleaning

• Non-menstrual vaginal bleeding is most commonly due to the presence of a foreign body in the vagina

• Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg or zygote does not travel to the uterus, but grows rapidly in the fallopian tubes

• Ovarian tumors can occur, although rare

• Ovarian cysts are noncancerous or benign sacs filled with fluid or semisolid material

• Polycystic ovary syndrome is a hormonal disorder in which the ovaries make too many hormones

• Trichomonas vaginalis inflammatory condition of the vagina, usually a bacterial infection also named vaginosis

• Dysmenorrhea is painful periods

• Menorrhagia is when a woman has very heavy periods with excessive bleeding

• Oligomenorrhea is when a woman misses or has rare periods

• Amenorrhea is when a girl has not started her menstrual cycle when she is 16 years old or 3 years after puberty begins

• Shock syndrome is caused by toxins released into the body during a type of bacterial infection

• Symptoms of yeast infection from yeast infections include itching, burning, and discharge

There are also tumors of the female reproductive system, such as :( cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, breast cancer)


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