Tuesday, August 27, 2019

What Else You Must Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases ?

What Else You Must Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases ?
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major cause of morbidity and a serious public health problem both nationally and internationally. These infections can have a harmful effect on the health of individual patients

Across the world, most adults have at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI), putting many affected people at risk for adverse effects and many remain at risk for complications on reproductive health and malignancies

STDs Signs and symptoms

The signs and symptoms of an STI may be evident, such as: 
  • Genital lesion or vaginal discharge, or bleeding less specific
  • Itching and scratching vaginal
  • Discharge or bleeding from the penis
  • Painful or swollen testicles
  • Dysuria
  • Lower abdominal pain 
  • Painful relationships or abnormal periods 
  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Ulcers
Less specific signs lead to frequent underestimation of sexually transmitted diseases. Obtain a complete sexual history objectively and without bias to determine the risk of STI, HIV infection or hepatitis. Young people (aged between 13 and 24), pregnant women and gay men are at greater risk of sexually transmitted diseases and consequent morbidity

The symptoms of STD cannot be listed because the term STD refers to a group of diseases. Every disease has its symptom. But it often happens that a person infected with a sexually transmitted disease does not know about it. A person may never feel sick or show any symptoms of a sexually transmitted disease and may still be infected

STDs Transmission 

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a serious public health problem, it is the exchange of blood or other body fluids that allows the transmission of infection from one person to another, sexually transmitted diseases are mainly transmitted due to relationships penetrating sexual. when the man inserts his penis (male reproductive system) into the female's vagina (female reproductive system). But most sexually transmitted diseases can also be widespread during other types of sexual activity such as oral sex and anal sex

Such infections should include transmission to an unborn child through the mother during pregnancy and birth

STDs Types and Causes 

Over 20 sexually transmitted diseases have been identified, including the most commonly known diseases: HIV / AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, hepatitis B, genital herpes, trichomoniasis (also known as Trichomonas) and HPV. Some sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV infections and syphilis, can also be transmitted through non-sexual contact with body fluids

The microorganisms that cause these diseases can be :
  • Viruses (human papillomavirus, genital herpes, HIV)
  • Bacteria (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia)
  • Parasites or fungi and can generally live in most body fluids (trichomoniasis)

STDs Complications

Healthcare professionals play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, the primary medical objectives are to identify and treat sexually transmitted diseases, but important secondary objectives include the preservation of future health (including fertility), the protection of any sexual contact, preventive education and instructions. for future screenings. The lack of treatment may lead to infertility, cancer and urogenital complications
  • Pelvic pain
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Pregnancy complications and Infertility
  • Heart disease
  • Arthritis
  • Eye inflammation
  • Certain cancers/ Malignancies, HPV-related cervical and rectal cancers

STDs Prevention

The product of three factors determines the initial rate of spread of any STI within a population: rate of sexual exposure of people sensitive to infected people, transmission efficiency by exposure and duration of infectivity of infected people. As a result, efforts to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases aim to reduce the rate of sexual exposure of sensitive people to infected people (e.g. through education and efforts to change the norms of sexual behavior and through control efforts aimed at reducing the percentage of the infected population); reduce the duration of infectivity (by early diagnosis and curative or suppressive treatment); and to reduce transmission efficiency :
  • Use latex condoms every time you have sex
  • Avoid sharing towels or underclothing
  • Wash before and after intercourse
  • promoting the use of condoms and safer sexual practices ( have sex only with one uninfected partner, or before any relationship, must be taken STIs tests )
  • The use of effective vaccines 
  • Medical male circumcision
  • Consider preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP)
There are some cases in which a person who may have an STD is reluctant to admit the disease . It is very unfortunate because not only are these people difficult to detect, but they facilitate another person's infection


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