Saturday, November 9, 2019

Chlamydial Infection: Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors

Chlamydial Infection: Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported infectious disease and the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The Greek word chlamydia for "hidden" or "covered", describing the intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies that are "wrapped" around the nucleus of the host cell. Chlamydia is the most common of all bacterial sexually transmitted Diseases

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection. These infections result in a severe sequelae of the disease, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, pelvic pain. chronic and ectopic pregnancy

Definition of Chlamydia

Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) worldwide. The disease is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. The Greek word chlamydia for "hidden" or "covered", which describes the intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies that are "wrapped" around the nucleus of the host cell. It is very easy to treat and cure. If left untreated, it can cause painful complications and serious health problems, such as testicular pain in men and pelvic pain and even infertility in women

Symptoms of Chlamydia

Men and women often show no symptoms for weeks or months after having chlamydia. In women, the symptoms that appear can take the form of an unusual yellowish vaginal secretion from the cervix. In fact, in both sexes, chlamydia infection can cause abnormal genital discharge and painful burning when urinating. About half of infected men and 75% of infected women are believed not to suspect a problem despite having chlamydia because they show no symptoms

Signs and symptoms may appear 1 to 3 weeks after contact with chlamydia, many months later or until the infection spreads to other parts of the body. You can notice:


• Burning when urinating
• More frequent urination
• Abnormal vaginal discharge
• Dull pelvic pain
• bleeding between periods and after sex
• Menstrual bleeding that is heavier than usual
• Most painful periods


• Burning when urinating
• More frequent urination
• White or yellow discharge from the penis
• Redness on the tip of the penis
• Itchy or irritated urethra (urethritis)
• Pain and swelling of the testicles (epididymitis)
• Pain between scrotum and anal area and difficult and frequent urination (prostatitis)

Rarely, chlamydia infection in men and women can develop outside the genital areas
• Eyes: itchy, red and itchy eyelids
• Throat: throat irritation or without symptoms
• The anus: rectal bleeding, rectal secretion of the mucous membranes, diarrhea and pain during defecation

Causes of Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria cause Chlamydia infection and are transmitted during vaginal, oral and anal sex with an infected partner. They can live in the uterus (uterus), in the vagina and in the cervix (entry into the uterus), in the urethra (tube from which urine flows), in the rectum (posterior passage) and sometimes in the throat and eyes. Anyone who is sexually active can get it and infect others. You don't have to have many sexual partners

It is unclear whether chlamydia can be transmitted by transferring the infected semen or vaginal fluid to another person's genitals with the fingers or rubbing the vulva (female genitalia) together. Chlamydia cannot be achieved by kissing, hugging, sharing baths or towels, swimming pools, toilet seats or sharing cups, plates or cutlery

Risk factors of  Chlamydia

Specific behavioral and historical factors place a patient at increased risk of contracting C. trachomatis. Classic risk factors for chlamydia infection include age below 26 years: age is an important risk factor because C. Trachomatis typically infects younger women, Precisely, in columnar cells of the cervix, spinal cells are more likely to be found in the ectocervice (ectopia), where they can be exposed to sperm transported by the body. With the age of women, columnar cells are located higher in the cervical canal. , low socioeconomic level, member of a minority group, multiple sexual partners and new partners

Chlamydia infections

C. trachomatisis, one of the four species of the genus Chlamydia, according to the reclassification of the order Chlamydiales, the Chlamydiaceae family is now divided into two genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. The genus Chlamydia includes the species C. trachomatis, C. suis and C. muridarum. It is responsible for a wide range of infections, including trachoma (a chronic conjunctivitis, which is the main preventable cause of blindness worldwide), newborn conjunctivitis and genital infections in women and men

Chlamydiae's lifestyle is unique: the bacteria alternate between two morphologically distinct forms, an infectious non-infectious elementary body (EB) and a non-infectious replicating reticular body (RB). This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the infectious form of the best-studied phylum member, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. Once considered an inert particle with poor functional capacity, EB is now perceived as a sophisticated entity that encounters at least three different environments during each infectious cycle

Let's examine the current knowledge on its composition and morphology and on emerging metabolic activities. These characteristics confer resistance to the extracellular environment, the ability to penetrate a host cell and eventually allow EB to establish a niche that allows the growth and survival of bacteria. The bacterial and host molecules involved in these processes are starting to emerge

C. trachomatis is a mandatory intracellular organism that depends on the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the host cell. The organism is ingested by the host cell through a specific phagocytic chlamydia process. After phagocytosis, EB exists within a cytoplasmic vacuole or phagosome, where it is protected by the host's defense systems. Inside the phagosome, EB is transformed into a cross-linked body (RB) to multiply. C. trachomatis has a unique life cycle, which differentiates it from all other microorganisms

Infection begins when elementary bodies (EB) bind to specific receptors present in the host's columnar or cuboidal epithelium. This type of epithelium is found in the endocervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes and urethra, making these sites vulnerable to infection. These infections have a significant impact on human health worldwide, causing trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. (STD) which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility of the tubal factor. Chlamydia STDs are also risk factors for cervical squamous cell carcinoma and HIV infection

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacterial infectious by sexually transmitted. Most cases occur in children under the age of 25. A higher prevalence has been found in patients who live in central cities, have a lower socioeconomic level or are black. Up to 80% of chlamydia infected women are asymptomatic and require no medical attention. In addition to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its sequelae, chlamydia infections can also facilitate the acquisition of HIV. Treatment is simple, effective and profitable. Despite the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, most high-risk women are not screened


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