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Tuesday, November 24, 2020

Tea and Cardiovascular health

   Tea and Cardiovascular health




Tea and Cardiovascular health




A researchers found that the consumption tea has been inversely related to the risk of heart disease and stroke by decreasing the risk of heart attack,  the development and progression of atherosclerosis and decreasing the “bad” cholesterol or LDL that can accumulate in the arteries

Coronary heart disease


Hertog and colleagues observed an inverse association between flavonol intake and CVD in Europe, where black tea, along with apples and onions, contributes substantially to total flavonol intake. Epidemiological evidence, demonstrate a strong inverse association between flavonol intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and incidence. cerebrovascular accident. Based on these observations, an inverse correlation was found between flavonol intake and coronary heart disease mortality after a 25-year follow-up on 12,763 men from seven countries studied. Likewise, the men and women who consumed one or more cups of tea a day in the previous year had a  lower risk of heart attack than those who had not drunk tea by 44%


Atherosclerosis


The consumption tea has been inversely associated with  the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The relationship between tea or flavonoid intake and atherosclerosis has been reporting that carotid plaques were less frequent with an increase in tea consumption in women and showed that the reduction in Carotid atherosclerosis was associated with a high intake of flavonoids in middle-aged men. The results of the studies show that flavonoids found in tea can reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis


Hypertension


Hypertension or High Blood Pressure can lead to the progress of atherosclerotic process and studies on green tea polyphenols in hypertensive animals and among black tea drinkers have been reported to link blood pressure reduction with tea consumption. Both the black tea PP and the green tea PP attenuate the development of hypertension (HTN), through its antioxidant properties, in spontaneously hypertensive patients with stroke. The quantities of PP used in this experiment equal to approximately 1 L of tea, regular consumption of black and green tea can also provide protection against HTN. They conducted a cross-sectional study and found that regular consumption of moderate intensity green tea or oolong tea, 120 ml / day or more for one year, significantly reduces the risk of developing HTN


Endothelial cell Function


The contribute altered activity of nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in the coronary circulation, has been linked to future CVD. Furthermore, this endothelial dysfunction is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and can be reversed with antioxidant interventions. Newely, whith using high-resolution vascular ultrasound, they randomized 50 coronary artery disease patients to brew freshly brewed black tea and water in a crossover design and assessed endothelium-dependent flow-dependent brachial artery dilatation. Both acute (two hours after 450 ml) and chronic (900 ml / day after four weeks) consumption of tea lead to improve the flow-mediated dilation  (p <0.001) in association with a higher plasma catechin concentration. No effects were observed with an equivalent dose of caffeine (200 mg) or on dilation mediated by endothelium-independent nitroglycerin. Since flow-mediated dilation is reduced in patients with coronary heart disease compared to healthy subjects, these results suggest that tea reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction


End The endothelium


The internal lining of all blood vessels, acts as a selectively permeable barrier between blood and tissues. It plays a circular role in the regulation of vasomotor tone, platelet activity, adhesion of leukocytes and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells through the release of various factors including NO


LDL oxidation


Dietary antioxidants reduce slow atherogenesis by reducing the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and associated events, such as the formation of expanded cells, endothelial cytotoxicity and induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Lipoprotein oxidation plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis through the oxidation process of low density lipoproteins (LDL) in the vascular walls. LDLs are very high in cholesterol and cause changes in the structure of the vascular walls. These structural changes encourage macrophages to collect oxidized LDL. promoting a change in foam cells. A collection of these cells in the vascular walls leads to the first noticeable change in cellular tissue, called fatty stria. These changes can cause complete closure of the artery, which can cause angina or vascular occlusion


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